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Historical Myths in the Yugoslav Successors States. Why Is This a Myth?
According to authoritative theories  of the myth as a phenomenon of great importance for human society, the most important characteristic and social function of the myth is explication of the facts, whether natural or cultural.
Possible upper time-borders are also, or Thus, the myth is born: But from historical point of view it is a serious problem, reflecting the whole range of unsolved national crises, crises of identity, territorial and ethnical feuds. It also supports the mythical character of the question. In a few words, it is completely unsure how many years the Ottomans ruled over the Serbs?
Where are or were the borders of their national area, if such area exists at all? Are or were the Macedonians Serbs? All these questions are involved with or without serious reason in this problem, involved by historians, politicians, scientists, common people making almost inevitable the fact that it is impossible to make chronological frame within could be precisely defined duration of Ottoman period of Serbian history.
Much more relevant aspect than its chronological and territorial problem is its substance. Given in the simplest interpretation, the myth could be displayed as such: Based on more or less acceptable arguments in its first half, the real myth begins in tragic fatal predestination which explains all misfortunes of modern Serbian state, all political, economic and cultural failures.
This point is suggested in the title of the work. My intention is to explain the mythical characteristics of the problem such defined, to show how it functions as a myth. I am inclined to look for these characteristics in many aspects: In these works there could be find a lot of story but lack of history!
Without any serious knowledge about real conditions during the Ottoman rule, historiography fashioned simplified model, which was and still is very influential. Such situation in politics and historiography is fertile ground for speculations and manipulation of these who are used to mythologize, aiming on creation of public consciousness. From my point of view even if originally self-made this myth supported by irresponsible relation towards the truth is useful as an element of national cohesion.
From historiography through educational system, myth is transferred to the people. They are usually the only source of information for lots of people, accordingly and most influential.
I also tried to cover wider chronological space in order to show that negative and biased picture of the Ottoman reign appears as structural element in textbooks, a kind of continuity during very changeable history of education in Serbia in XX century. It remains, as dominant idea, that historiography is national discipline, aiming in producing patriotic emotions.
It is particularly emphasized in history textbook for the first grade of gymnasium. The idea of disturbing, undesirable and dangerous otherness is the dominant idea in portrayal of Ottoman government, the Turksin history textbooks in Serbia.
Textbooks I consulted writing this paper cover almost entire XX century so it was possible to detect some similarities and differences towards this matter. I will not enter the discussion about ideological changes clearly evident, but some of them are to be mentioned. Of certain importance is the fact that this textbook gave some remarks which are affirmative for the Ottoman government. Feudal obligations of the raya were, in the beginning, less unbearable than these given to domestic gentlemen in the period before Ottoman conquest.
After negative experience with Hungarian and Austrian authorities, lots of the Serbs, settled in southern Hungary, got back to Turkey, where they found themselves in a better position.
Similar situation repeated when Austria governed northern Serbia Taken as a whole, the picture of the Turks turns out as dominantly negative, mostly because of sharp qualifications. This textbook allows to get more measured picture about Ottoman period, but more emotional, too, when compared with textbooks from period after The World War the Second, including modern textbooks.
For period after the World War the Second I consulted two  textbooks used in the period betweenfor elementary school, and three textbooks used from to nowadays . Not even a word was spoken about some political or cultural successes of Ottoman Empire.
The image remains negative at xa. Ottoman Empire is presented as unstable state, descending into corruption, with permanent aggravation gimnazihe a position of the Christians. Excerpts from the sources refers mostly to sufferings and unbearable igmnazije over the Christians.
Without intention to be cynic or to diminish its importance, it should be honest and confess that, except the general remarks about severity of the Turks, nothing about devshirme is understandable for the students. Authors of the textbooks are not even informed about how frequently devshirme took place and also where.
According to one it was every year, another believes that it was in every fifth, and maybe in every seventh year. Such ignorance is not regarded as a problem, because there are poetic descriptions of event, just fimnazije to replace the lack of knowledge. And, of course, our youths were favorite because of their moral and physical superiority.
Following simplified pattern of political, cultural, and economic backwardness, corruption and anarchy, all textbooks support the idea that the Ottomans disabled development of the Serbs for centurieswhile other European peoples were developing their culture and economy. Of course, it cannot be explicitly presented in History textbooks, but what happens, for instance, in Geography textbook  for III grade of gymnasium, which citanja my favorite one?
In the lesson about protection of nature sic! Lesson which is supposed to inform the students about population of Yugoslavia gives historical account about migrations toward the Balkans.
In the view of this example, it is interesting to rwzred another general remark given by the author of the textbook: But, through the rational use of natural and social potentials, our economy has good conditions for development. When describing historical reasons for migrations toward the North, author puts the emphases over the torture done by the Turksbecause of Serbian insurrections and participation in the wars against the Ottomans organized by Christian forces.
The Turksaccording to common opinion, were not interested in economic development of these areas, and if they had done something, they had done it wrongly. The story never ends! Examples are numerous, and it is impossible to mention them all. Textbooks for the first four grades of elementary education give even more vivid picture of cruel and uncivilized otherness. The guilt for misfortunes and failings is regularly found in cruel otherness.
Literatura – knjige
I would mention just a few interesting details. In July, with new Serbian President there was inaugurated the old-new Serbian hymn. In some manner the myth presented in this work got an official approve. Sometimes the myth gets also the form of joke: Even if having been finished, historically, citankq deep in history?
Neuropsihijatrija Za 4 Razred Ss
gumnazije The effects of such simplified interpretations are at least expectable and in their basis citnka Cvijic which persists even in modern times, one, one and half, or two centuries sic! This, let me say, spiritual yoke is mirrored, as it is mostly acceptedin low level of social life of the state, spreading from corruption and backwardness in the economy citankz administration, over the entirely peculiar, oriental taste in the music, up to the unclean public water closets.
If accepted, these interpretations introduce one logical question: Is it possible to make some conclusions about the people who had adopted only these negative influences? Approaching the end of essay, I would like to pay attention to efforts aiming to curtail these stereotypes, efforts which give their first results in revision of textbooks, changed views towards the national past, more critical and more historical approach to the problem of Ottoman reign V.
Istorija naroda JugoslavijeII, Beograd Pregled istorije jugoslovenskih narodaI-II, Beograd Corovic, Istorija SrbaNis Istorija Osmanskog Carstvaed. Lukic, Poznavanje drustva, udzbenik za V razred osnovne sk ole, Beograd Mihailovic, Poznavanje prirode i drustva za 3. Jugovic, Istorija srednjeg veka za vise razrede gimnazijeBeograd Grubac, Istorija za 7. Strugar, Istorija za 7. Sparavalo, Istorijska citanka za 7.
Kuljic, Prevladavanje proslostiBeogradp. Analysis was made using history textbooks. Perovic, M Rrazred, Istorija za 7. Novakovic, Istorija za 3. See citaka in the end of the text.
Historical Myths in the Yugoslav Successors States
Analysis was made by D. I was in a position to use these materials by kindness of D. Stojanovic, who took part on the conference. Mantran, Citxnkapp. First edition M.