Distrito de Tupe, sierra de Cañete Lima – Perú. Done. Comment. 1, views. 0 faves. 0 comments. Taken on October 21, Some rights reserved. Distrito de Tupe, Lima – Perú. Done. Comment. 1, views. 4 faves. 0 comments . Taken on October 22, Some rights reserved. The northern branch of the Aymaran family is mainly confined to a number of villages belonging to the municipality (distrito) of Tupe, situated in the province of .

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Lecythidaceae is the family of the Brazil nut, and comprises about species belonging to 17 genera with pantropical distributions. One hundred and twenty-two species belonging to nine genera are distributed throughout Brazil, demonstrating its greatest diversity in the Amazon rainforest where Lecythidaceae is also one eistrito the most abundant families.

It is usually difficult to collect fertile material from these trees because of their canopy heights, and species determinations using sterile material can be complex because of their morphological similarities.

Ten species were found, Allantoma lineata Mart. Berg MiersBertholletia excelsa Bonpl. Berg; and six species of Eschweilera, the richest genus. The descriptions and identification keys of the species used 56 characters. The main reproductive characters useful for distinguishing the species were the pubescence of the inflorescence rachis, pedicel length and trichomes presence, floral symmetry, hood type, filament shape, stigma shape, fruit shape and size, and aril type.

The most diagnostic vegetative characters were the type and color of the outer bark, inner bark color, midrib prominence, and disrrito shape and pubescence.

The Lecythidaceae have a pantropical distribution, and comprises approximately 17 xe and species. Among the principal characteristics used to recognize the neotropical Lecythidaceae is their arboreal habit, simple alternate leaves, and the presence of cortical bundles in the bark that produce fibers envira – a distinct vegetative characteristic that differentiates this taxon from most other groups of trees.

Lecythidaceae is included within the order Ericales, and in spite of the fact that its position within the clade is not well-defined, is considered monophyletic Anderberg et al. The complete phylogeny of the family has not yet been fully resolved, however, and although the genera with actinomorphic flowers form a monophyletic group there are still divergences in terms of its sub-families.

Napoleonaeoideae, Scytopetaloideae, Foetidioideae, Planchonoideae, and Lecythidoideae.

In spite of the fact that these three subfamilies are monophyletic, the relationships of their component taxa have not been fully resolved, especially among the Lecythidoideae. The subfamily Lecythidoideae only occurs within the neotropics, and comprises species grouped within 10 genera; it is widely distributed within Brazil, with species belonging to nine genera, of which 54 are endemic.

The subfamily is more diverse in the Guiana shield and in the Sistrito Amazon forest with 95 endemic species ; 11 endemic species are found in the Atlantic Forest biome Smith et al. In spite of the ecological importance of Lecythidaceae and its diversity within the Amazon forest and the publication of numerous studies by Scott Mori the Lecythidaceae pages – http: Seventeen new neotropical species of Lecythidaceae have been described since that time, with the two most recent members being described in Grias purpuripetala S.

The work undertaken in French Guiana stands out as being one of the most complete examinations of the family, and included studies of the taxonomy, anatomy, pollination, and ecology Mori distito al. The online monograph Lecythidaceae Pages Mori et ve. In spite of the availability of these important works on the taxonomy of the Lecythidaceae many difficulties are tu;e encountered in identifying specimens in the field as well as in herbaria resulting in a significant level of erroneous determinations particularly those of nonspecialists – and principally because the most abundant species are vegetatively very similar.

The genus Eschweilera is probably the most serious case, with INPA Herbarium – http: This high percentage is principally due to the large number of sterile collections. Gupe of the taxonomy of this family in the Brazilian Amazon are still insufficient. Different from the publication described above, this work used only vegetative characters in the identification guide. Berg Miers] had previously been identified in terra-firme upland areas Scudeller et al.


Berg Miers and Couratari tenuicarpa A. The scarcity of detailed floristic inventories that include taxonomic studies has made it difficult to map the geographical distributions of many species, identify their intra-specific variability, and even to discover new species. This information is of enormous importance in determining the phylogeny of the family – which has not yet been fully resolved.

Two types of forest vegetation predominate in the reserve: Specimens that were used in preparing the identification keys were documented in the field with written descriptions and with photographs using a Nikon Coolpix L20 digital camera. Mori, a known specialist in the field. A total of 56 morphological characters 20 vegetative and 36 reproductive were selected to compose the descriptions and the identification key.

The specimens were carefully examined using a stereomicroscope and their dimensions determined using a digital caliper or a millimeter rule and photographed using a Leica EZ4D stereomicroscope with an integrated digital camera.

Distrito de Tupe, Lima – Perú.

The data entered into the DELTA program was codified, and standardized descriptions of the species were generated and elaborated into identification keys – one key utilizing both vegetative and reproductive characters and the other based on vegetative characters and the habitats of the plants. These species descriptions were largely based on the characteristics of the plants collected in the study area; only when it was not possible to observe a given characteristic the descriptions were complemented with observations made in other areas.

The djstrito genus was Eschweilerawith six species, while the other genera Allantoma, Bertholletia, Couratariand Lecythis were represented by only a single species each. Ds detailed examinations of the two upland species the previous identifications were determined to be incorrect. Eschweilera apiculata was actually E. Distrto species from the seasonally flooded sites had been correctly identified. Trees small to very large emergent.

Leaves simples, alternate, camptodromous, margins usually entire, sometimes crenulate to serrate; very large and grouped on the terminal portion of the branch in Couroupita, Griasand Gustavia ; smaller and not grouped in the other genera.

Inflorescence terminal, axillary or caulinary; raceme simple or a spike, rarely fasciculate. Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx entire or with fe petals -8 or gupe 12 or 18; stamens numerous, forming a stamen tube in Allantoma, Grias, and Gustavia ; the stamen ring is slightly expanded on one of its sides in Cariniana, and markedly expanded and forming a laminated ligule with an apical hood in the other genera, the appendices associated with the hood with or without anthers, pollen fertile in all of the stamens or some stamens with fertile pollen and others with sterile pollen; ovary normally -6 locular, with anatropous ovules per locule, placentation axial or, less frequently, basal or apical, ovules pendulous or erect.

Fruits indehiscent of the fleshy berry type Grias and Gustaviawith a thin and woody exocarp Couroupitaor dehiscent by way of a distrtio operculum pyxidium in the other genera. Seeds alate Cariniana and Couratari ; funicle dostrito and twisted Gustavia ; aril present or absent, may be lateral, basal, or cover the entire seed. The genus characteristically comprises upper canopy and emergent trees; medium to large sized leaves cm longglabrous, tertiary venation percurrent; inflorescence racemose or paniculate; flowers with actinomorphic androecium; 5 tupee and 5 petals; androecium forming a stamen tube disrito stamens along the margins or spread on the internal surface of the tube; fruit of pyxidium type, cylindrical; seed unilaterally alate.

Eight species are distributed through the western Amazon except A.

Distrito de Tupe, sierra de Cañete Lima – Perú. – a photo on Flickriver

Trees 18 m tall. Trunk and base cylindrical; outer bark brown, smooth, with little sloughing, lenticels in vertical rows; inner bark reddish-yellow.

Leaf with both faces dull; petiole glabrous, flat convex, 9. Inflorescence terminal, racemose or principal rachis with one order of branching, glabrous, 7.

Flowers actinomorphic; calyx with sepals, indistinct, 2. Fruit dehiscent, cylindrical, 7. This species is easily recognized in the field by its smooth bark with many vertically oriented lenticels and eucamptodromous leaves with salient primary and secondary venation. Similar to Ttupe decandra Ducke S. The species are distinguishable as A. Among the species studied, only Dishrito. Seed dispersal in A. This genus is characterized by canopy and emergent trees; trunk cylindrical with deep fissures in the tuppe leaves medium to large cm longglabrous, obovate to oblong; flowers zygomorphic; calyx with ds sepals; 6 petals; hood with vestigial stamens turned inwards, without forming a spiral; filament clavate; ovary 4-locular, stigma long up to 4 mm and geniculate.


Fruit rounded, woody, with inconspicuous calicinal ring, small operculum, functionally indehiscent.

Seeds triangular in transversal section; is the only species with a hard and woody seed testa, without funicle.

Trees 15 m tall. Trunk and base cylindrical; outer bark gray, deeply fissured, without lenticels; inner bark yellow.

Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, with trichomes, cm long; pedicel with trichomes, mm long. Flowers zygomorphic; calyx with 2 sepals, wide-elliptical, 8. Fruit dehiscent, globose, Up to 25 seeds per fruit, 3. The seeds are removed from the interior of the fruit by rodents with strong teeth, such as agoutis Dasyprocta spp. The stamens of Bertholletia excelsa are vestigial and oriented toward the interior of the hood, where nectar is produced; this type of hood is exclusive to this genus.

Other floral characters important for differentiating B. The same authors noted that this species is typical of nonflooding environments and is encountered in the Guianas and in the Amazon forests of Columbia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil Mori et al. Genus characterized by canopy and emergent trees; leaves small to medium cm longglabrous or pubescent.

Flowers zygomorphic, with 6 sepals and 6 petals; hood totally rolled into a spiral, with an external flap that develops at the apex of the spiral; ovary with 3 locules, ovules numerous; fruit of the pyxidium type, cylindrical with a relatively thin pericarp; seeds circumferentially alate.

Trees 12 m or taller. Trunk cylindrical, buttressed, outer bark gray, with superficial vertical fissures, with lenticels; inner bark dark-yellow. Leaves with adaxial face shiny and abaxial face dull; petiole glabrous, flat convex, 9. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, with trichomes, 3. Flowers zygomorphic; calyx with 6 sepals, triangular, 2. The principal characteristics used to recognize this species include a buttressed trunk; small leaves with slightly crenate margins; flowers with hood with a double spiral with a spongy external tip; fruit small up to 5 cm long and slightly triangular in transversal section; the seeds have a membranous and flattened aril, forming a wing that totally surrounds the seed a characteristic typical of anemochorous seeds.

Couratari tenuicarpa was included in the section Microcarpa as it has a hood that is double spiraled inwardly, with an external labelate flap which in the case of C.

Distrito de Tupe, Lima – Perú. | CHIMI FOTOS | Flickr

Due to the great similarity between some species of this section, the superspecies Couratari multiflora was created that includes C. The species most likely to be confused with C. The petiole of C.

These species are also allopatric, with C. Couratari tenuicarpa may also be confused with C. Knuth due to similarities of their flowers, although these species differ in terms of the sizes of their fruits, which are smaller in C. Genus characterized by small to large trees; trunk cylindrical, with or without large buttress roots; leaf blade glabrous with brochidodromous venation; petiole with flat-convex outline; flowers zygomorphic; calyx with 6 sepals; corolla with 6 petals; hood completely rolled up at least once; stamens free, forming a stamen ring, anthers rimose; ovary inferior, usually bilocular, rarely tetralocular, various ovules per locule, placentation axial; fruit of the pyxidium type, operculum without columella; seeds with lateral aril, rarely with basal aril.

This is the most abundant tupr of Lecythidaceae, with 92 described species. Knuth, in Engler Pflanzenr. Trees 25 m tall. Trunk and base cylindrical; outer bark gray-brown, smooth or with superficial vertical fissures, without lenticels; inner bark reddish-yellow. Leaf shiny on adaxial face and dull on abaxial face; petiole glabrous, flat disyrito, 3. Inflorescence terminal, racemose, in zigzag, with trichomes, 5. Flowers zygomorphic; calyx with 6 sepals, ovate, 3. Fruit dehiscent, campanulate, 6.

Seeds per fruit, 2.