Title, Fena halde leman: roman. Can Yayınları: Türk yazarları dizisi · Türk yazarlar dizisi. Author, Attilâ İlhan. Edition, 7. Publisher, Can yayınları, Fena halde Leman by Attilâ İlhan. Fena halde Leman. by Attilâ İlhan. Book Microform: Microfilm: Master microform. Turkish. [Istanbul]: Karacan Yayınları. Buy Fena Halde Leman by Attila İlhan from Amazon’s Fiction Books Store. Everyday low prices on a huge range of new releases and classic fiction.
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Changing according to historical, geographical, social and cultural differences, this concept is divided as sex and gender by feminist critics. Asserted as the ideological tool of the dominant culture, that is patriarchy, gender is used to categorize the individuals as heterosexual men or women. While the dominant patriarchal culture locates strong, tough, authoritarian men at the top of the hierarchical order in society, it puts women in secondary positions as well as ostracizing the individuals who do not fit into categories of masculinity and femininity.
Patriarchy labels gender non-conformists, who are gay, lesbian, bisexual and trans- people, as the abnormal members of society and puts them into minority status. Whereas these people have had non-discriminatory social statuses in various cultures existing from ancient times to present, they are subject to discrimination and they have to struggle to call for their existence. In this context, it is asserted in this dissertation that gender is constructed depending on the dominant ideology and on its needs to maintain the social continuity.
Based on the real life story of the first person to undergo sex reassigment surgery, David Ebershoff s novel is examined focusing on the dominant culture s suppression and its results on the trans persona as well as touching upon the s Europe s gender phenomenon.
Through making historical and social examinations, this study aims to reveal how gender and social identities are constructed and deconstructed by gay, lesbian, bisexual and trans people in the light of the two selected novels mentioned above. This is almost impossible for our imagination to accept. What is the first question we ask about a newborn baby?
It takes different forms and cultural masks depending on the historical period and culture, so it holds peculiar codes of culture. The system we live today assigns gender immediately after birth and biological-reproductive differences are assumed to compose the individual s identity. This dissertation approaches the body as a gendered instrument to sustain and maintain Western culture lekan gender ideology, that oeman, heteropatriarchy which assumes heterosexuality as the only form of gender in patriarchal foundation.
Gendered body is examined to display the prescriptions of the culture which acknowledges every individual as either male or female. Namely, this thesis provides a critical approach to the gender phenomenon of Western culture within the framework social constructionism.
Gender is handled as an invention of the dominant ideology and as a category that is deconstructed by gay, lesbian, bisexual and trans- people. By studying the two selected novels, it is also aimed to demonstrate the possibilities of gender beyond the categories of male and female such as homosexuality, androgyny, hermaphrodites, and transgender identities.
Thus, the body is conceived as an active and receptive mechanism that has the potentiality to surpass the binary based construction of gender. The first chapter, which is composed of two parts, clarifies the confused notion of sex and gender.
It addresses the division of sex and gender to identify their different contexts. Besides giving introductory information, the first part of this chapter challenges the idea that anatomy determines the differences and boundaries of the sexes.
The second part of the first chapter deals with cultural construction of gender. The somewhat artificial construction that there are only two sexes is destroyed by the examination of some non-western cultures gender biases. Also, the second part 1 Ursula LeGuin. Prentice Hallp. On the other hand, the second part approaches gender within the regulatory structure of patriarchy that imposes heterosexuality in order to keep the hierarchical between the sexes intact.
The power relations, which are regulated according to the gender of the individual, are studied to display the malleable nature of gender. Last part of the first chapter supplies definitions of ignored forms of gender. Those who do not adopt the normative heterosexuality are defined, and the difficulties they experience as non-conformists are conveyed in order to demonstrate the coercive functioning of heteronormativity.
Different forms of gender, such as homosexuality, androgyny, hermaphrodites and transgenderism are explained to reveal the fact that the dichotomous thinking of gender cannot be fixed, and different gender forms may exist in spite of heteronormativity. The second chapter of the dissertation centers on the politics of gender identity in terms of the formation of gender identity, its roles, and the psychic situation of individuals who do not adopt the assigned gender identities and roles.
Formation of identity, gender and gender role identity comprise the first two parts of the second chapter. These parts aim to show how the individual s identity is generated according to the gender dichotomy. Constitution of self and signifance of gender in this process are explained. It is found out that gender, the major part of identity, is the first thing to be recognized in social ineraction. Therefore, it is assigned based on the heteropatriarchal ideals. As a result of which, individuals generate perception of themselves in masculine and feminine terms.
It is also asserted that culture s expectations and attributions to serve its rules and norms are transmitted by naturalized masculine and feminine traits.
That is to say, the peculiarity of gender identity which refers to the way how every individual bears her own identity of gender is highlighted. In the last part of this chapter, inner worlds and psychological difficulties that non-heterosexuals experience are explored. Gay, lesbian, bi- and trans- people s psychic disorders are conveyed by researches made on non-heteroseuals.
Binary oppositions of gender and heteronormativity are taken for granted so naturally that 2. Feeling squeezed between the normative heterosexuality and being non-heterosexual, they undergo psychiatric dilemma.
Thus, the cost of being non-confomist seems to take its fall in psychological terms. The last part of the theoretical background of the dissertation turns to point out the functions and operations of social institutions on gender construction.
This part takes a critical stance towards the institutions that embed dichotomous thinking as the only form of gender bias as well as invading every part of life. The institutions mentioned in the dissertation are family, traditions of Western culture, law and educational system. The individual s gender development is studied starting from the core unit of society, family. Through which, gender identity and roles are transmitted to the child from the very beginning of her life.
Furthermore, naturalized knowledge of day-to-day practices of gender duality is examined. The body is handled as a poetic object 2 as it takes form, gender and cultural assignments beholded by both the individual herself and the other members of society.
The gendered aspect of our repeated actions and practices are proclaimed in this chapter. Additionally, formal institutions of society, law and education, are evaluated from a heteronormative point of view.
It is demonstrated that those who acknowledge the appropriate gender peculiarities coded by heteropatriarchy are favored by the authorities of the state. Another formal institution promoting the dominant gender phenomenon is the educational system which characterizes the individual s gender based on the cultural norms. Having formed roles and stratification to provide an order to society, heteropatriarchal system heavily depends on the social institutions to practice its ideology and necessities.
In order to indicate the construction of gender, the parallel working of heteronormative ideology and social institutions are scrutinized in this chapter. The 2 Amelia Jones.
Clothes Make the Man: The Male Artist as a Performative Function. In Oxford Art Journal. The novels are aimed to confirm the artificial construction of heteropatriarchy.
Including transgender, homosexual and bisexual characters, the selected works are conceived as ground breaking literary endeavors. Therefore, the reader is led to think critically about the naturalized division of gender categories because the characters remarkably destroy and blur the accepted notions of being woman and man.
To be more specific, characters are focused on because they deconstruct the established norms of gender bias. The reason why this novel is selected is that it is based on the true story of the first person to have sex reassignment surgery. Besides depicting the first transsexual s inner world in the midst of heteropatriarchal society, the novel exemplifies the destruction of biology-is-destiny affirmation with regard to gendered social norms and the historical period it takes place in. More than that, the transformation of the protagonist is studied to make the reader realize the malleable nature of dichotomous thinking of gender.
The novel is included especially for its challenging attitude toward gender norms, which is rare in Turkish literature. Construction and deconstruction of gender is stunningly represented by the characters, so this part deals with the analyses of them as they embody many fluctuating gender identities.
Along with breaking the normative binary oppositions of gender established by heteropatriarchy, the characters serve as examples to non-heterosexuals who are to live with psychic disorder risks as a result of violating the gendered foundation of culture. Briefly, this thesis, which consists of four parts, is a study of gender construction and deconstruction in heteronormative patriarchal society. It aims to introduce the possibilities of gender that destabilize our perceptions of established gender categories, and it serves to uncover the fictional gender attributes of the dominant ideology through studying David Ebershoff s and Attila ilhan s daring books.
However, there are many possibilities of gender forms such as homosexuality, bisexuality and transsexuality, so the body is actually an active and perceiving mechanism that has incarnated throughout the cultural and historical conditions.
It is an unstable genesis through which gender is constructed to perform heteropatriarchal aims and to carry out power relations. The anatomical structure of the body is used to justify the so-called stability of gender with the aid of the cultural construction in order to secure the functioning of the ongoing heteropatriarchal system Sex: The division between sex and gender has become clear when the former is categorized as a biological and the latter as a cultural element.
In other words, sex refers to biology and the body while gender is a constructed etiquette. Thus, sex is based on physiology, gender is based on culture.
Formats and Editions of Fena halde leman : roman 
Development of human anatomy is complex and sexual fenq is an extremely complicated process that includes chromosomal, hormonal and genetic effects.
First, sexual differentiation begins after six weeks of embryonic development. All embryos are bipotential and sex is ambiguous until the contribution of X and Y chromosomes which have a lemman role in designating the sex of the individual.
The absence of a Y chromosome and the subsequent lack of testosterone production prompt the indifferent gonad of an XX embryo to transform 5. Second, hormones play significant role in sex differentiation. Androgens are defined as masculine hormones while estrogen and progesterone are identified as female hormones.
Fena Halde Leman
Third, it is claimed that genes create differences in behavior and organize the activities of sex hormones, leading to remarkable distinctions between man and woman adolescence. Biological determinists base their claims of natural division of sexes upon these innate factors such as chromosomes, hormones and genes. According to them, there are only two sexes; male and female, and biology predetermines the individual s personality and behavior.
Yet, the biology-is-destiny conviction is challenged by recent researchers and feminists.
Anne Fausto-Sterling, who is a professor of biology and gender studies at Brown University, questions the biological determinism. She claims that if biology is the ultimate criteria defining sex, there are not only females and males but also other possible sexes.
Lfman sexes are identified after examining the biological characteristics only; males, females, herms, merms and ferms so it is proved that there are fna only two sexes but also different form of sexes.
She is of the opinion that to a certain degree, people are under the effect of hormones, yet social conditions also affect human behaviors and actions. In other words, she fnea that biology affects particularities of sex but they are open to change in social environment. For instance, elevated testosterone levels may, in fact, result from aggressive behavior.
The environment in which the individual lives has significant effect on not only on hormones but also on emotions, thoughts and behavior. Not only biology but also culture determine the individual s sexual identity, and the latter is quite affective on division of sexes. Sylviane Agacinski, philosopher and writer of Parity of the Sexes, disputes sexual division, based on anatomy.
She asserts that natural hwlde of sexes in birth does not posit the order of gender relations because they are fictive and derived from norms.