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In static economies, consumption patterns become rigid, and marketing is typically nothing more than a supply effort. In a dynamic economy, consumption patterns change rapidly. Marketing is constantly faced with the challenge of detecting and providing for new levels of consumption, and marketing efforts must be matched with ever-changing market needs and wants.

Economic development is generally understood to mean an increase in national production that results in an increase in the average per capita gross domestic product GDP. Besides an increase in average per capita GDP, most interpretations of the concept also imply a widespread distribution of the increased income Economic development presents a two-sided challenge.

It groups countries into three categories: LDCs less-developed countries — Refers to industrially developing countries just entering world trade, many of which are in Asia and Latin America, with relatively low per capita incomes. LLDCs least-developed countries — Includes industrially underdeveloped, agrarian, subsistence societies with rural populations, extremely low per capita income levels, and little world trade involvement.

Violence and the potential for violence are often associated with LLDCs. Countries that are experiencing rapid economic expansion and industrialization and do not exactly fit as LDCs or MDCs are more typically referred to as newly industrialized NICs.

These countries have shown rapid industrialization of targeted industries and have per capita incomes that exceed other developing countries. They have moved away from restrictive trade practices and instituted significant free market reforms; as a result, they attract both trade and foreign direct investment. It is also interesting to note the differences in consumer spending among the Latin American countries and the United States.

Komunikimi i ndermjetesuar,komunikimi verbal dhe jo verbal by dardan bajrami on Prezi

A joverbql assessment of economic development and marketing should begin with a brief review of the basic facts and objectives of economic development. Industrialization is the fundamental objective of most developing countries. Most countries see in economic growth the achievement of social as well as economic goals.

Better education, better and more effective government, elimination of many social inequities, and improvements in moral and ethical responsibilities are some of the expectations of developing countries. Thus economic growth is measured not solely in economic goals but also in social achievements. Infrastructure represents those types of capital goods that serve the activities of many industries.

Generally speaking, the less developed a country is, the less adequate the infrastructure is for conducting business. Companies do market in less-developed countries, but often they must modify offerings and augment existing levels of infrastructure. A country that has the ability to produce jooverbal for export may be unable to export them because of komnikimi inadequate infrastructure. Roads and seaports are inadequate, and the railroad system has seen little modernization since the revolution.

Conditions in other Latin American countries are no better. Marketing efforts must be keyed to each situation, custom tailored for each set of komuni,imi. An efficient marketing program is one that provides for optimum utility given a specific set of circumstances. The more developed an economy, the greater the variety of marketing functions demanded, and the more sophisticated and specialized the institutions become to perform marketing functions.


Estimating market potential in less-developed countries involves additional challenges. Most of the difficulty arises from the coexistence of three distinct kinds markets in each country: These markets are not necessarily defined by national borders, but rather the pockets of poverty across countries.

This table also illustrates the percentage of household income spent on various classes of goods and services. More household money goes for food in emerging markets than in developed markets, but the next category of high expenditure for emerging and developed countries alike is appliances and other durable goods.

Some elements of culture are transmitted intergenerationally, as when parents teach their children table manners. The elements of culture are interrelated. Because culture is learned behavior, it is adaptive; that is, the culture changes in response to external forces that affect the society.

Culture is shared by members of the society and defines the membership of the society. Individuals who share a culture are members of a society; those who do not are outside the boundaries of the society. The interaction of these elements affects the local environment in which international businesses operate.

Each element is discussed on the following slides. In other cultures, the extended family is far more important. These differing social attitudes are reflected komunikii the importance of komunikiimi family to business. In Arab-owned firms, however, family ties are crucial, and hiring relatives is a common, accepted practice. Cultures also differ in the importance of the individual relative to the group. Societies differ in their degree of social stratification.

All societies categorize people to some extent on the basis of their birth, occupation, educational achievements, or other attributes. However, the importance of these categories in defining how individuals interact with each other within and between these groups varies by society. Social mobility is the ability of individuals to move from one stratum of society to another.

Social mobility tends to be higher in less stratified societies. It filters observations and perceptions and thus affects unpredictably the messages that are sent when two individuals try to communicate. Language provides important clues about the cultural values of the society and aids acculturation.

For instance, India recognizes 16 official languages, and approximately 3, dialects are spoken within its boundaries, a reflection of the heterogeneity of its society. Generally, countries dominated by one language group tend to have a homogeneous society, in which nationhood defines the society. Countries with multiple language groups tend to be heterogeneous, with language providing an important means of identifying cultural differences joferbal the country.

To conduct business, international businesspeople must be able to communicate. As a result of British economic and military dominance in the nineteenth century and U.

Most European and Japanese public school students study English for many years. Some countries that have many linguistic groups, such as India and Singapore, jovwrbal adopted English as an official language to facilitate communication jovedbal the diverse groups.

Similarly, firms with managers from many different countries may use English as the official corporate language. Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. This nonverbal communication includes facial expressions, hand gestures, intonation, komunikiml contact, body positioning, and body posture.

Although most members of a society quickly understand joverbsl forms of communication common to their society, outsiders may find the nonverbal communication difficult to comprehend.

Gift-giving and hospitality are important means of communication in many business cultures. Japanese business etiquette requires considerate joverbql. Elaborate meals and after-hours entertainment serve to build personal bonds and group harmony among the participants. These personal bonds are strengthened by the exchange of gifts, that vary according to the occasion and the status of the giver and the recipient. However, business gifts are opened in private so as not to cause the giver to lose face should the gift be too expensive or too cheap relative to the gift offered in return.


The business culture of Arab countries also includes gift-giving and elaborate and gracious hospitality as a means of assessing these qualities.

Norms of hospitality even affect the way bad news is delivered in various cultures. In the United States, bad news is typically delivered as soon as it is known. Further, in order not to disrupt personal relationships, the bad news is often only hinted at.

In Japan, maintaining harmony among participants in a project is emphasized, so bad news often is communicated informally from a junior member of one negotiating team to a junior member of the other team. Even better, a third party may be used to deliver the message to preserve harmony within the group. For example, the caste system of Hinduism traditionally has restricted the jobs individuals may perform, thereby affecting the labor market and foreclosing business opportunities.

Countries dominated by strict adherents to Islam, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, limit job opportunities for women, in the belief that their contact with adult males should be restricted to relatives. Religion also affects the types of products consumers may purchase as well as seasonal patterns of consumption. In most Christian countries, for example, the Christmas season represents an important time for gift-giving, yet very little business is done on Christmas Day itself.

While consumption booms during the Christmas holidays, production plummets as employees take time off to visit friends and family. Consider Saudi Arabia, home of the holy city of Mecca, to which all Muslims are supposed to make a pilgrimage sometime in their lives.

Strong political pressure exists within the country to preserve its religious traditions. For example, work stops five times a day when the faithful are called to pray to Allah. Feja ndikon edhe ne: Culture also affects and reflects the secular values and attitudes of the members of a society. Cultural attitudes toward such factors as time, age, education, and status reflect these values and in turn shape the behavior of and opportunities available to international businesses operating in a given culture.

Koha Mosha Edukimi Statusi Attitudes about time differ dramatically across cultures.

Mjedisi Ekonomik dhe Socio-Kulturor

In Arab cultures, meetings not only often start later than the stated time, but they also may be interrupted by family and friends who wander in to exchange pleasantries. Important cultural differences exist in attitudes toward age. Youthfulness is considered a virtue in the United States. The means by which status is achieved also vary across cultures. In others, it is earned by the individual through personal accomplishments or professional achievements. Kufizime ekonomike apo recesioni.

Here is a definition of social class. Krishterizmi, Islami, Hinduizmi, Budizmi, etj. My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Auth with social network: Registration Forgot your password? Download ppt “Mjedisi Ekonomik dhe Konunikimi.